Ad - Any paid form of non-personal communication to the public about a brand, an organization, product, service or idea 

An advertising campaign consists of coordinated (series) messages in a variety of media that center on a single theme across a time frame. Integrated communications = multi-platform campaign

Advertising helps position the product, by creating brand image and symbolic appeal for the brand which is important for companies selling product/services that are difficult to differentiate on functional attributes. (e.g. Sunkist orange is diff from others)

Besides branding purposes, why do companies advertise:

      Brings in the sales

      Remind consumers

      To inform (communicate)

      Brand awareness

      Establish presence 

Tactical ads are sales-driven, provide direct solution and give details of the product being advertised.

Branding ads do not merely sell a product in itself, but instead, try to convey a certain image or lifestyle that appeals to people. 

‘Paid’ - space or time for an advertising message must be bought 

Non-personal nature - no opportunity for immediate feedback from the message recipient.

Therefore before the message is sent, the advertiser must consider how the audience will interpret and respond to the message  

What advertising usually does best is create awareness, one ad alone rarely drives the consumer to buy immediately.

Using Celebrities in Ads

Heider’s Balance Theory explains how people tend to maintain consistency in patterns of their liking and disliking of one another and of inanimate objects.

Balance Theory is useful in examining how endorsement using celebrities and other opinion leaders affects consumers. If a person likes a celebrity and perceives (due to the endorsement) that the celebrity likes a product, said person will tend to like the product too, in order to achieve psychological balance.

Heider’s Symbols

P: the consumer to be analysed
O: another person (celebrity)
X: the product
+ : Likes
-  : Dislikes 

Balanced Relationships:
      P+O, O+X, P+X

Girl likes George Clooney; George Clooney likes Nespresso; Girl likes Nespresso.

      P+O, O-X, P-X

Girl likes George Clooney; George Clooney dislikes Nespresso; Girl dislikes Nespresso.

      P-O, O+X, P-X
Girl dislikes George Clooney; George Clooney likes Nespresso; Girl dislikes Nespresso.

      P-O, O-X, P+X,
Girl dislikes George Clooney; George Clooney dislikes Nespresso; Girl likes Nespresso

My friend’s friend is my friend

My friend’s enemy is my enemy

My enemy’s friend is my enemy

My enemy’s enemy is my friend

If the balance is thrown off, there will be discomfort and an urge to restore the position of balance.