Bloom's Taxonomy

Bloom's Taxonomy
Written & Researched by: Ivan Teh RunningMan

The Bloom's Taxonomy is a set of 3 hierarchical models, used to classify educational learning objectives into levels of complexity. Also known as the 3 domains of learning, Bloom's Taxonomy covers learning objectives in the domains of cognitive, affective, and psychomotor.

The 3 Domains Of Learning, Source Credits

Named after Benjamin Samuel Bloom, who chaired the committee of educators that devised the taxonomy, and authored its first text in 1969, Bloom's Taxonomy is a widely used teaching tool, serving to inform many educators. Each of the 3 domains of learning has various levels of sequential difficulty, and allows educators to assess learners on the learning outcomes in a structured manner. Bloom's Taxonomy also aids educators in the preparation of educational or training materials as they are able to classify and peg the content to a selected domain and level.

As this is a taxonomy, each subsequent and increasing level of difficulty means that learners must be able to competently perfom at the level or levels that precede it. In this way, Bloom's Taxonomy also allows educators to chart the progress of a learner towards mastery of a specific subject matter in a domain of learning. Action verbs are typically associated with each level, which serve to describe what a learner is able to achieve at that level.


The most widely used domain of learning in Bloom's Taxonomy is the Cognitive domain. A revised and updated version was released in 2000. The Cognitive domain relates to mental ability, and measures the amount of knowledge gained through learning.

Bloom's Taxonomy - Cognitive

The 6 levels within the Cognitive domain are:

  • 1. Remembering: To recall, recognise, or identify concepts

  • 2. Understanding: To comprehend meaning, explain data in own words

  • 3. Applying: Use or apply knowledge, in practice or real life situations

  • 4. Analysing: Interpret elements, structure relationships between individual components

  • 5. Evaluation: Assess effectiveness of whole concepts in relation to other variables

  • 6. Creation: Display creative thinking, develop new concepts or approaches


The Affective domain relates to emotional quotient, and measures the feelings and attitudes experienced or changed through learning.

Bloom's Taxonomy - Affective

The 5 levels within the Affective domain are:

  • 1. Receiving: Open to experience or idea, willing to hear

  • 2. Responding: Get involved in or participate actively

  • 3. Valuing: Attach values and express personal opinions

  • 4. Organising: Reconcile disparate elements or conflicts, develop value system

  • 5. Internalising: Adopt belief system or philosophy


The Psychomotor domain relates to manual or physical aptitude, and measures the growth in skills gained through learning.

Bloom's Taxonomy - Psychomotor

The 5 levels within the Psychomotor domain are:

  • 1. Imitation: Copy the actions of another, to observe and replicate

  • 2. Manipulation: Reproduce activity from instruction or memory

  • 3. Precision: Demonstrate activity reliably, to a high quality, and independently

  • 4. Articulation: Integrate and adapt expertise to fulfill a non-standard objective

  • 5. Naturalisation: Automated, unconscious mastery of activity at a strategic level


In summary, Bloom's Taxonomy is a universally effective classification strategy for educators, useful as a guide in creating educational / training content, impart learning with clear objectives, and assess learners on the learning outcomes.


Source Attributions:

Benjamin Samuel Bloom, "Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals", published by Longman Group, June 1969. ISBN-10: 0679302115. ISBN-13: 978-0679302117.

Lorin W. Anderson & David Reading Krathwohl, "A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Abridged Edition", published by Pearson Education, December 2000. ISBN-10: 080131903X. ISBN-13: 978-0801319037.

Elliot Wayne Eisne, "Benjamin Bloom: 1913-1999", published by UNESCO: International Bureau of Education, September 2000. Retrieved 22 September 2016, from